In Ireland, in 2023 dairy farmers have to deal with nitrogen excretion rates per cow based on milk production per cow. Previous a general average excretion of 89 kilograms of nitrogen per dairy cow was used. Currently, the excretions used for cows with a milk production of less than 4500 kilograms per year are: 80 kilograms of organic nitrogen per cow per year. With a production of 4500 to 6500 kilograms of milk per cow per year, an excretion of 92 kilograms of nitrogen applies. With an average production of 6500 kilograms of milk or more, an excretion of 106 kilograms of nitrogen applies. The excretion rate has influence on how much nitrogen is allowed to add on land.