In Holland Wageningen University & Research will in a four year project work on producing milk without cows. Also the Dutch universities of Maastricht and Utrecht and some start-up companies producing cell-based proteins will be involved. The project focuses on milk proteins, which are produced by cells. The consortium will explore three ways of making cell-based proteins. In the first instance, the use of cell lines that work in a similar way to cow udders. These cells can produce whole milk. Second, the use of genetically modified microbes that produce one specific milk protein. The third line of research is using microbial proteins as they are, without genetic modification.